Contribution à la synthèse d'observateurs des systèmes non linéaires . Application à la commande des machines électroniques et réalisation d'un banc d'essai .
This thesis treats of realization of anexperimental banc intended for electric machines. This bank will be used to validate any algorithm of speed control or position resulting from digital simulations. This materialstructure comprises: two Hall Effect current sensors and voltage, an incremental coder to collect the angular position, a three-phase inverter based transistor IGBT and an induction machine coupled to a D.C generator. current. All this unit is controlled by a numerical card: dSPACE DS1102. Our work was not limited to assemble these various elements but to conceive them and to carry them out. It is the case of the sensors and the inverter. In addition to the choice of the components which is not obvious the first time, still is necessary, that they are precise, powerful and accepting repeatedconstraints and tests. We also approached the basic concepts on the linear and nonlinear observability of systems. Consequently, a detailed analysis of induction machine observability is given. We will show that this machine is inobservable on a line ofthe torque-speed plan when the mechanical sensor is removed. A first order model, around operating points, of the asynchronous machine is also presented. We also propose a Luenberger observer for this model with an aim of reconstituting rotor current magnetizing (image of flux). To remedy to the linearized model disadvantages, a high gain observer is synthesized and then validated, by digital simulation. We also treat identification of the electric parameters and mechanics of the induction machine. The aim of this identification step is to provide the electric and mechanical parameters of a standard model witch used thereafter in control. To obtain a high level of performance in the field oriented control requires a very good knowledge of the parameters. The chapter is supplemented at the end by results of validation of the obtained given parameters. The end of the thesis is devoted to the experimental evaluation of the field oriented control associated with the high gain observer. After having carried out the calculation of the various regulators, we presented certain constraints and conditions related to the experiment. A panorama experimental result is given to confirm the theoretical study and especially that the realised experimental banc is operational.